Wisconsin fast plants research paper

Wisconsin Facts and Trivia Wisconsin visitors and residents enjoy the state's 7, streams and rivers. End-to-end they'd stretch 26, miles. That is more than enough to circle the globe at the equator. Wisconsin's Door County has five state parks and miles of shoreline along Lake Michigan.

Wisconsin fast plants research paper

Your research question may require concrete evidence to either back up a claim or to strengthen a particular point. You may find yourself needing quantitative data to: Provide Information When Qualitative Accounts are Incomplete or Lacking Fifteen thousand years ago, northwestern Wisconsin was buried under an ice sheet hundreds of feet thick.

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To the south, mammoths grazed the tundra amongst stunted spruce trees. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind boulders, gravel, and kettle lakes. The climate warmed, and boreal forests gave way to jack pines and oaks. By this point, the mammoths were long extinct, and Indians hunted deer and beaver on the sand plain.

Wisconsin fast plants research paper

Six thousand years ago, sand dunes initially deposited during the last glaciation actively migrated during the warmer, dryer conditions; during the Little Ice Age, white pines moved in when conditions were cooler and wetter. On the Wisconsin sand plain today, the white pines are dying back, giving way to the oaks and jack pines that grew a thousand years before.

So how do we know what conditions were like in northern Wisconsin over the last fifteen thousand Wisconsin fast plants research paper Paleoenvironmental, modeled, and historical ecological data can be particularly useful to help understand the climate, fire, or ecological history of a region when no other accounts of land use, climate, or vegetation are available.

For example, Public Land Survey System data from the midth century has been used to identify forest types in the Midwest and Western states just prior to widespread European settlement. Paleoecological data from fossil pollen and charcoal preserved in lake sediments collected by Sara Hotchkiss and colleagues suggest that in northwestern Wisconsin, the white pine forests reported by the PLS surveyors was not typical of the last 1, years, but were likely an artifact of earlier climate conditions.

Hotchkiss and colleagues used paleoenvironmental and historical ecology methods to better understand forests on the Wisconsin sand plain during a period of time for which there was no ecological data being collected.

Wisconsin fast plants research paper

Estimates of the numbers range widely. Flabbergasted by what they witnessed, some observers were awed into wild, unconfirmable and clearly wrong figures from one billion to ten billion buffaloes in a herd or one hundred million animals in a square-mile region.

ABSTRACT SCALE (System-Wide Change for All Learners and Educators) is a partnership involving two major educational research and development groups: the University of Wisconsin's Wisconsin Center for Education Research (WCER) and the University of Pittsburgh's Learning Research and Development Center (LRDC). city - data - city data - find city data - town city data - city & data (tm) - best city data - #1 city data - local city data - new york city data. Flats of the rapid-cycling Brassica plant are housed in a greenhouse of the Wisconsin Fast Plants Program in the Biotron Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

Over the last century, estimates have been lower—in the thirty to one hundred million range for the total population in AD Using different estimates he suggested that in there had been fifty to seventy-five million bison…and some forty million at the outset of the nineteenth century.

Krech cites first-hand accounts for the contemporary, qualitative estimates, and scientific estimates by non-contemporary experts to contrast with historical estimates by untrained observers. The historical accounts may have been inaccurate for a variety of reasons—lack of ecological training, the desire to hyperbolize to make a better story, or settlers may even have exaggerated unintentionally because they were amazed by what they saw on the Plains.

Return to Top of Page A Primer on Scientific Data Before you make claims based on quantitative data, it is helpful to have a quick reminder of how the scientific method works. Although the exact steps vary among disciplines, all scientific inquiries have some features in common.

Hypotheses are guesses about how a subject or system works. Predictions describe what might happen if the hypothesis is true. Experiments test whether the predictions or hypothesis is true. Observations, which can include measurements, record the results of the experiments.

It takes only one incorrect example to prove a hypothesis wrong. Why does this matter? It matters because the scientific method leaves a lot of room for uncertainty. Scientists are not able to prove every theory or hypothesis correct, but in the absence of any contradicting evidence, many hypotheses are assumed to be true until proven otherwise.

Keep this in mind when you are relying on scientific data. In addition, scientific measurements and observations rarely give crystal clear results especially in the environmental sciencesso conclusions will often have a measure of uncertainty.

Scientists are accustomed to this and have devised a number of tests to reduce that uncertainty, or at least to numerically demonstrate when the uncertainty is low. That is, whom has the psychiatrist been observing? It turns out that he has reached this edifying conclusion from studying his patients, who are a long, long way from being a sample of the population.

If a man were normal, our psychiatrist would never meet him. The goal of this section is to explain some of the most common statistics you will encounter: For a more thorough treatment of ways to use statistics some uses more ethical than others!

Averages and Standard Deviations The most common statistics you will see are probably averages and standard deviations. An average is the arithmetic mean of a set of numbers.Wisconsin Fast Plants- hands-on learning with rapid cylcing Brassica What's new in Paul's Sandbox - downloadable activities by the developer of Wisconsin Fast Plants STANDARDS AND .

Key facts. The Wisconsin State Herbarium boasts more than million specimens of plants, lichens, fungi and algae, making it one of the largest collections of its kind in the world and the third largest public-university herbarium in the country.

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The standardized methods for growing these fast plants on capillary matting under light banks is explained. Their insect pollination and a method of artificial pollination with beesticks are described and methods for circumventing the flower's self-incompatibility reviewed.

Pollinating Wisconsin Fast Plants. How to Melt and Pour Agar Plates. How to Clean Laboratory Glassware. PTC Paper, Pack of Item # PTC Paper, Making Scents of the World: Nobel Prize-Winning Research.

Ratings & Reviews. W - Participate in shared research and writing projects This resource is an excerpt of lessons from the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Investigating Plants with Wisconsin Fast Plants Program. Each group of students will cover parts of plants' leaves with black construction paper and make observations of the plant’s leaves over.

Power Point. Create a graph. 4 Wisconsin Fast Plants or other. 4 tape players or CD players. 4 types of music.

Light source for plants. Inspirations. Students need to learn how to create a bar graph with paper and online. Students need to learn how to use the digital camera and how to download the images onto the computer. Have students.

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