The growing problem of obesity in america

References Childhood obesity is a complex health issue. It occurs when a child is well above the normal or healthy weight for his or her age and height.

The growing problem of obesity in america

A Growing Problem: Obesity in America – FiveSeventy

Some contributing factors to this epidemic can be credited largely to the progression from a rural lifestyle into a highly technological urban existence, and the alluring ability of our environment to promote us to eat more and move less.

Almost all countries are experiencing this spectacular increase in obesity. For instance, from to the prevalence of overweight individuals in China almost tripled in men and doubled in women Hill et al. In addition, steps for the treatment of obesity will be presented as well as a brief summary examining future directions to consider for combating obesity.

Energy Balance Basics Weight management is impacted fundamentally by energy balance: Our genome has evolved from times of neediness for food and shelter. Food was only periodically accessible and famine was constantly a threat to sustenance Loos and Bouchard, In addition, major amounts of physical exertion were necessary to obtain food or to escape a harsh living environment.

Thus, the human species has evolved with a remarkable ability to biologically function with great energy efficiency by storing large amounts of excess fat intake into fat tissue.

Our present sedentary, food abundant circumstances may be a by-product of our success as a society, but it clearly creates an energy imbalance in our lifestyle, leading to obesity.

Fat Tissue Regulation of Energy Metabolism and Immune Responses Fat tissue, for the most part, has typically been perceived to be an extra layer of cushioning with few metabolic responsibilities.

For years fat was viewed and described like a balloon that inflates when one eats more food and expends less calories, and deflates when there is greater physical activity and less food consumption. More recent research reveals that fat tissue composed of adipocyte cells that specialize in fat storage functions like other endocrine organs glands that secrets hormones in the body, sending signals to the brain which affect several intricate physiological mechanisms of energy expenditure regulation, insulin sensitivity, and fat and carbohydrate metabolism.

A few key hormones of interest for energy metabolism regulation are leptin and adiponectin, while a host of other hormones are involved in immune reactions of the body.

Leptin Although leptin has been elegantly described by Jenna A. Leptin functions in what is referred to in biology as a negative feedback loop. For example, when fat cells decrease in size, leptin decreases, sending a message to the hypothalamus to direct the body to eat more.

Contrariwise, when fat cells increase in size, leptin increases and the message sent to the hypothalamus is to instruct the body to eat less.

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However, it appears that the primary biological role of leptin is to facilitate energy intake when energy storage is low, as opposed to slowing down over-consumption which may contribute to obesity when energy storage is high Havel Leptin production is chiefly regulated by insulin-induced changes in fat cell metabolism.

Havel notes that the consumption of fat and fructose actually results in lower circulating leptin levels, which can lead to overeating and weight gain. Thus diet, and more specifically intake of foods high in fat and fructose may have a direct connection with weight gain.

It also helps decreases blood levels of triglycerides by working with insulin to stimulate fat breakdown. If a person has a lot of body fat, then they typically will have lower levels of adioponectin.

It is predictably low in all overweight individuals and especially low in persons with insulin resistance a cellular condition where glucose is inhibited in entering the muscle cell. However, as of yet, science has not begun attempts of administering adiponectin as a pharmacological agent for weight loss.

Immune Hormones It is now known that fat tissue produces a number of immune system hormones such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, angiotensin II and other cytokines Havel Cytokines, which are hormone-like proteins, function largely as inflammatory proteins, reacting to areas of infection or injury in the body.

However, persons with excess fat appear to have an over-reaction of the release of these inflammatory proteins. It has been proposed that this is caused by the low oxygen content in the clusters of adipocytes, which are somewhat distant from the tissue vascular supply Trayhurn, This topic of inflammation is one of the most critical in obesity biology.

Both obesity and diabetes are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation Trayhurn, As well, inflammation is now understood to be a key facet in heart disease. The release of these inflammatory proteins may inflame arterial plaque, causing the plaque to rupture, and thus leading to a heart attack or stroke Liebman, Trayhurn notes that with weight loss, there is a corresponding decrease in the circulating levels of these inflammatory proteins.

As well, it appears that these fat tissue derived inflammatory hormones may play a causal role in the development of insulin resistance Trayhurn. Specific hunger signals trigger eating, while satiety messages inhibit appetite. Grehlin, secreted by the stomach, plays a major role in appetite regulation.

Working in a positive feedback loop, high levels of grehlin during a fasted state promote increased food intake, while lower levels of grehlin are observed after eating a meal.

However, when obese individuals lose weight, this often results in an elevation of grehlin, also promoting food intake, and thus may be a physiological reason there is difficulty in maintaining the new found weight with dieters.

In addition, it appears that food does not suppress grehlin levels in obese individuals, again contributing to overeating. Peptide YY When your body feels you have eaten enough, the hormone peptide YY and other satiety hormones is released from the intestines.

It is particularly stimulated by lipids and carbohydrates Druce et al. This gut hormone is proposed to work with the central nervous system to regulate the cessation of appetite as you eat.When examining overweight and obesity trends across North America, more American men and women were found to be obese or overweight than Canadians.

The prevalence of being either obese or overweight among American men (71%) was higher than among Canadian men (65%), and higher in American women (62% vs. 49%).

The growing problem of obesity in america

The Growing Problem of Obesity Len Kravitz, Ph.D. Introduction Worldwide there are an estimated one billion obese (body mass index [BMI] equal to or greater than 30 kg/m2) persons, a phenomenon that has been increasing rapidly over the last two decades (Loos and Bouchard, ).

Some people with extreme obesity suffer from depression. Talk to your doctor about the best treatment, as some anti-depressant medications can cause weight gain. . Based on these statistics, there is no question that obesity is reaching an epidemic level in the United States and negatively affecting the health of America, especially its younger generation.

A national comprehensive obesity awareness and prevention strategy must be developed, focusing on the major cause of the growing epidemic, the changing.

The Growing Problem of Obesity Len Kravitz, Ph.D. Introduction Worldwide there are an estimated one billion obese (body mass index [BMI] equal to or greater than 30 kg/m2) persons, a phenomenon that has been increasing rapidly over the last two decades (Loos and Bouchard, ).

Additionally, the prevalence of obesity is projected to grow, not only in the United States, but also in countries such as Mexico, England, and Canada. Despite more and more initiatives to fight adult and childhood obesity, the rates have continued to .

Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences | Overweight & Obesity | CDC