Coordinating Bodies Effective mechanisms are being developed to harmonize cross-sectoral policies related to forestry e. Presently, the National Forest Policy is being reviewed under the auspice of the recently created Ministry of Environment. There is however, a Land Use Act.
General considerations Measurements and ideas as the basis for weather prediction The observations of few other scientific enterprises are as vital or affect as many people as those related to weather forecasting.
With such information they must have enjoyed greater success in the search for food and safety, the major objectives of that time. In a sense, weather forecasting is still carried out in basically the same way as it was by the earliest humans—namely, by making observations and predicting changes.
The modern tools used to measure temperaturepressure, wind, and humidity in the 21st century would certainly amaze them, and the results obviously are better.
Yet, even the most sophisticated numerically calculated forecast made on a supercomputer requires a set of measurements of the condition of the atmosphere —an initial picture of temperature, wind, and other basic elements, somewhat comparable to that formed by our forebears when they looked out of their cave dwellings.
The primeval approach entailed insights based on the accumulated experience of the perceptive observer, while the modern technique consists of solving equations.
Although seemingly quite different, there are underlying similarities between both practices. Because observations are so critical to weather prediction, an account of meteorological measurements and weather forecasting is a story in which ideas and technology are closely intertwined, with creative thinkers drawing new insights from available observations and pointing to the need for new or better measurements, and technology providing the means for making new observations and for processing the data derived from measurements.
The basis for weather prediction started with the theories of the ancient Greek philosophers and continued with Renaissance scientists, the scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries, and the theoretical models of 20th- and 21st-century atmospheric scientists and meteorologists.
In synoptic meteorologysimultaneous observations for a specific time are plotted on a map for a broad area whereby a general view of the weather in that region is gained.
Since the midth century, digital computers have made it possible to calculate changes in atmospheric conditions mathematically and objectively—i. The widespread adoption of numerical weather prediction models brought a whole new group of players—computer specialists and experts in numerical processing and statistics—to the scene to work with atmospheric scientists and meteorologists.
Moreover, the enhanced capability to process and analyze weather data stimulated the long-standing interest of meteorologists in securing more observations of greater accuracy.
Technological advances since the s have led to a growing reliance on remote sensing, particularly the gathering of data with specially instrumented Earth-orbiting satellites. By the late s, forecasts of weather were largely based on the determinations of numerical models integrated by high-speed supercomputers, except some shorter-range predictions, particularly those related to local thunderstorm activity, were made by specialists directly interpreting radar and satellite measurements.
Practical applications of weather forecasting Systematic weather records were kept after instruments for measuring atmospheric conditions became available during the 17th century. Undoubtedly these early records were employed mainly by those engaged in agriculture.
Planting and harvesting obviously can be planned better and carried out more efficiently if long-term weather patterns can be estimated.
In the United States, national weather services were first provided by the Army Signal Corps beginning in These operations were taken over by the Department of Agriculture in By the early s free mail service and telephone were providing forecasts daily to millions of American farmers.
Weather Bureau established a Fruit-Frost forecasting Service during World War Iand by the s radio broadcasts to agricultural interests were being made in most states.Ten years after the release of the water hyacinth mirid Eccritotarsus catarinensis in South Africa: what have we learnt?
J.A. Coetzee,1,2 M.P. Hill1 and M.J. Byrne2 Summary Water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, is the worst aquatic weed in South Africa, and biological control offers the most sustainable control option. Water hyacinth proliferation is usually closely linked to increases in eutrophication in these systems, and as a result, the effect of feeding by biocontrol agents is insufficient to retard water hyacinth growth (Hill and Cilliers, ).
WATER HYACINTH CONTROL AND POSSIBLE USES Introduction Water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Water hyacinth is an aquatic plant which can live . TS 1D – Environment and Land Use Planning Angela K. Etuonovbe The Devastating Effects of Environmental Degradation - A Case Study of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria.
Click here to go to the following issues: Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Nigeria. NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN. Eichhornia crassipes, commonly known as common water hyacinth, is an aquatic plant native to the Amazon basin, and is often a highly problematic invasive species outside its native urbanagricultureinitiative.com: Commelinales.