December 4, Analyzing a text means interpreting the information that is written in that text, breaking it down to gather all the information and learn the meaning behind what it's written in the text.
Luechauer That organizations need to change is not news to human resources HR professionals, organizational development OD practitioners, or managers. However, it may come as a surprise to learn that the very processes by which change initiatives are developed, facilitated, and evaluated needs to be changed.
This article presents a postmodern theory of change known as appreciative inquiry AI as an alternative to the problem-solving approach that is most commonly applied in organizational change initiatives.
The roots and fundamental tenets of each approach are briefly described and juxtaposed. The approaches are operationalized via relevant case examples.
The article concludes by discussing alternative uses for appreciative inquiry and some words of caution about potential misuses of AI. Introduction Is a glass containing half its capacity nearly full or nearly empty? This article suggests that many human resource HR professionals, organizational development OD practitioners, and managers hereafter referred to as change-agents see it as half empty because they would adopt a problem-solving approach based in a logical positivist perspective, a perspective based in deterministic cause and effect.
Recently, some scholars and practitioners have suggested that problem solving and the logical positivistic orientation inhibit the facilitation of lasting or deep change Quinn, They are promoting appreciative inquiry AI as an alternative method of facilitating change.
Therefore, AI encourages change-agents to look for opportunities instead of problems when designing personal, organizational, and societal change initiatives Bushe, The Historical Roots of Change Logical positivism, also known as logical empiricism, scientific empiricism, and consistent empiricism, is a philosophy of science founded in Vienna during the s by a group of scientists, mathematicians, and philosophers known as the Vienna Circle.
The members of this group shared a distaste for metaphysical speculation. They considered the assertions of traditional metaphysics as meaningless because they were impossible to verify in experience.
The core assumption of logical positivism is that a proposition or statement is factually meaningful only if it is verifiable.
Thus, logical positivism is aligned with the technique in which most change-agents have been schooled known as the scientific method.
Logical positivism assumes that deterministic cause and effect relationships exist.
Those relationships can be explored by a neutral, detached, distant, and hands-off examination of the phenomena under study.
The techniques they explored and recommended are grounded in the scientific method Bartunek, The publishing house Addison-Wesley produced a series of popular press books focused on organizational development in that help ground and frame both OD and organizational change efforts.
Hence, OD is a comparatively conservative change strategy and many early OD efforts were simply social psychological experiments adapted to applied settings Bartunek, The Problem with Problem Solving As a philosophy of science, logical positivism has dominated the academic world, particularly M.
Hence, the problem-solving or action science approach is the way most change-agents were trained. In fact, many change-agents gain prominence or develop good reputations by identifying problems and working toward their resolution.
Presently we are at a critical juncture in the development and application of change theory and some serious questions need to be raised about our work thus far.
Namely, how many problems do change-agents really solve? How much better do organizations function after the change-agents have concluded their experiments?
How lasting are the changes they initiated? Limited analysis could suggest that the problem-solving orientation has not generated many creative or lasting solutions Quinn, Problem solving, action science, and the scientific method are all based on the assumptions of logical positivism.
The stability assumption is no longer tenable in the current business environment. Interventions based on this assumption are likely to have short-run value. Bushe and Pitman suggest that the problem-solving approach has a number of other unappealing consequences.
First, a problem-solving approach generally requires us to ask what is wrong or what went wrong. This form of inquiry also reduces the possibility of generating new theories and new images of social reality that might help us transcend current social forms Bushe, It keeps us in the proverbial box.
We seek to address such complex issues as maintaining customer satisfaction, low morale, turnover, or decreased quality by asking what is wrong in the existing system rather than questioning the appropriateness or use of the system that produced those results in the first place.
Then we ask how can we fix what we have rather than asking how can we accomplish that which we desire to achieve. A good example of the limits caused by adopting the problem-solving approach is performance evaluations. The first issue is related to framing.
To this point, common sense suggests that employees should be evaluated and that the evaluation process should lead to improved performance that is good for the individual and the firm. This frame emanates from a logical positivist and deterministic perspective that although plausible is as yet unverified.
Then, satisfaction with the performance review process becomes a frequently-discussed issue both in and outside the organization.Report Writing 19 Pie Chart Pie charts are often used to demonstrate percentages. In our inventory example, we could use a pie chart to show what percentage of our inventory is composed of widgets versus doodads versus whatsits.
Line Graph. Writing Fraud Examination Reports. GWAR Writing Fellowship Program. The GWAR Writing Fellowship Program places a Writing, Reading, and Study Skills (WRSS) Tutor in a GWAR course, at the request of a professor, to provide writing assistance to students in the course.
Feb 26, · Like many other journals, the journal PLOS Computational Biology admits and in some cases requires presubmission inquiries to be submitted before the submission of a full paper.
Presubmission inquiries serve the purpose of informing the journal’s Editorial Board of the essence of the intended submission. Editage Insights offers a wealth of free academic research and publishing resources and is a one-stop guide for authors and others involved in scholarly publishing.
Our original resources for authors and journals will help you become an expert in academic publishing. The new edition of From Inquiry to Academic Writing encompasses an even greater range of academic habits and skills.
And now with the new edition, you can meet students where they are: online. To package LaunchPad Solo free with From Inquiry to Academic Writing, use ISBN From Inquiry to Academic Writing: A Text and Reader / Edition 2 From Inquiry to Academic Writing helps students understand academic culture and its ways of reading, thinking, and writing.
With a practical and now widely proven step-by-step approach, the text demystifies cross-curricular thinking and writing/5(2).