Ragged Boy on 05 Nov at 5: I got this idea after watching Dr. Sorcerer Supreme and thinking are there any young, black, and male magic superheroes. None that I can think of.
Factors Contributing to Gun Violence Among Serious Young Offenders Understanding the factors that contribute to your youth gun violence problem will help you frame your own local analysis questions, determine good effectiveness measures, recognize key intervention points, and select appropriate responses.
Research has shown that crime problems tend to cluster among a few offenders, victims, and places.
Youth gun violence is similarly concentrated among a few offenders in a few places. This section reviews what is known from criminal profiles of youth gun offenders and victims, addresses the importance of gangs and criminally active groups in youth gun violence, and discusses the clustering in location and time of youth gun violence.
It is important to note that the problem frames vary across the studies described below.
However, in all cities, youth gun violence was the most important component of the problem. For example, in Minneapolis, problem-oriented research conducted on an emergent total homicide problem found that homicide was largely committed by youth ages 24 and under, who used guns and were known to the criminal justice system.
In Boston, an interagency group of law enforcement personnel, youth workers, and researchers examined the criminal histories of youth ages 21 and under killed by gun or knife in the city between andand of the youth offenders responsible.
Nearly 50 percent had been on probation in the past, and Exploring the root causes of the problem of juvenile delinquency were on probation when they were killed. Of the offenders, a little over 75 percent had been arraigned for at least one offense in Massachusetts courts, 25 percent had served time, over 50 percent had been on probation in the past, and 25 percent were on probation when they committed the crime.
Victims and offenders known to the criminal justice system had an average of nearly 10 prior arraignments, and nearly 50 percent had 10 or more arraignments. They had been arraigned for a wide variety of crimes, including armed violent offenses, disorder offenses, and drug offenses.
The Boston interagency group examined the circumstances of the youth gun and knife murders and found that nearly two-thirds were gang-related.
In Minneapolis, nearly two-thirds of youth murders between and were gang-related. Another 25 percent involved gang members as victims or offenders, but were motivated for reasons other than gang rivalries.
In addition, some gangs are more dangerous than others. Gang members represented less than 1 percent of all Boston youth, and less than 3 percent of youth in high-risk neighborhoods.
The mapping also documented rivalries and alliances among gangs. In Minneapolis, researchers identified some 2, people in 32 active street gangs as being central to youth gun violence; they represented less than 3. The gangs tended not to be territorial; they operated fluidly across Minneapolis and nearby jurisdictions.
In Boyle Heights, researchers identified 37 criminally active street gangs as being involved in youth gun violence. However, gangs are not always behind youth gun violence. In Baltimore, violent groups active in street drug markets were involved in numerous homicides in Researchers identified drug groups that ranged in nature from rather sophisticated organizations, to structured neighborhood groups, to loose neighborhood groups.
In thinking about the nature of your youth gun violence problem, it is important to recognize that the direct links between youth gangs, drugs, and violence are usually overstated. Gang and group violence is usually retaliatory or expressive defending gang honor, status, and members.
Youth gun violence victims treated in Boston emergency rooms often had scars from past gun and knife wounds. They are at high risk of being confronted by gun violence, so they tend to try to protect themselves by getting, carrying, and using guns; forming and joining gangs; acting tough; and so forth.
The research confirms a high degree of overlap between victim and offender populations. It is important that you determine whether this overlap exists in your jurisdiction. Geographic and Temporal Distribution Like most crime problems, youth gun violence is clustered in specific places.
In Boyle Heights, spatial analyses revealed that youth gun homicide was concentrated in specific hot spots, in and around gang hangouts. Most of the Boyle Heights youth gun homicides were considered to be predatory, as perpetrators invaded rival gang territory to commit them.
For example, in Boston, most youth gun violence occurred in the afternoon hours immediately following school release, as well as during weekend evenings. In Kansas City, Mo. Research has shown that criminal and disorderly youth gangs and groups vary widely both within and across cities.
You must combine the basic facts with a more specific understanding of your local problem. Analyzing the local problem carefully will help you design a more effective response strategy. Analyses of youth gun violence should combine official data with street-level knowledge to provide a dynamic, real-life picture of the problem.
The experiences, observations, and historical perspectives of police officers, street workers, and others in routine contact with offenders, communities, and criminal networks are underused resources for describing, understanding, and crafting interventions aimed at crime problems.
Collecting data through interviews and focus groups can help you refine existing practitioner knowledge.
Crime mapping is also an important tool in assessing youth gun violence. It can provide important insights on the locations of gun crimes, gang turf, and drug markets. Asking the Right Questions The following are some critical questions you should ask in analyzing your particular problem of youth gun violence, even if the answers are not always readily available.
Your answers to these and other questions will help you choose the most appropriate set of responses later on.Abstract.
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