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Definitions, Scope and Topicality Introduction Questions of women's rights are questions of human rights: The extent of a society's development is most clearly reflected in the freedom women enjoy, and in the extent to which they are able to express their creativity.
The way we live today, both as scientists and as members of society, is influenced by a world view — and a sense of history — based, to a large extent, on male principles. This foundation is maintained by structural and mental violence. It is the ideology of universal male dominance and universal patriarchy.
The research findings of Modern Matriarchal Studies contradict this world view. The subject of Modern Matriarchal Studies is the investigation and presentation of non-patriarchal societies, those that existed in the past and those that still, to some degree, are still with us now.
Even today there are peoples with matriarchal patterns in Asia, Africa, the Americas and Oceania. None of these is a mere reversal of patriarchy, where women somehow rule over men — as it is often commonly misinterpreted — instead, they are, without exception, egalitarian societies.
This means that hierarchies, classes and the domination of one gender by the other are all unknown to them. They are societies that are free of domination, but they still have their guidelines and codes.
And this is what makes them so attractive to those looking for a new philosophy to support the creation of a just society. Equality does not mean a mere levelling of differences. The natural differences between the genders and the generations are respected and honoured in matriarchies, but they never serve to create hierarchies, as is common in patriarchy.
The different genders and generations each have their own value and dignity, and through complementary areas of activity they depend on each other.
This can be observed at all levels of society: More precisely, matriarchies are societies with complementary equality, where great care is taken to provide a balance.
This applies to the balance between genders, among generations, and between humans and nature. Matriarchal Studies started as early as years ago with the pioneering work of Johann Jakob Bachofen's "The Mother Right"but it did not meet with an appreciative reception .
Over the past few decades Matriarchal Studies have been undergirded with a scientific foundation; thus making way for Modern Matriarchal Studies. This enterprise differs in several ways from the previous matriarchal studies: In this way a new socio-cultural science has been created, one that represents a new paradigm.
The central tenet of this paradigm is that women have not only created society and culture over long periods of human history, but that all subsequent cultural developments originated there. A new paradigm emerges when the old one has lost its credibility and starts to decay.
The new approach can be used to clarify many open questions that the old paradigm could not satisfactorily solve.
And it has political relevance as well: It comes into being out of a spiritual and political need, one which no one planned and no one ordered.
Several scholars, working independently of each other, are now expressing it for the first time, while maintaining their own specific emphases and perspectives. And in this we see the exciting part of the emergence of a new paradigm, the aspect that confirms its power.If war not only marks the beginning of patriarchy but if patriarchy, as such, is war, that is war at all times, everywhere, in principle, and in all areas of life and society, then patriarchy is not only a system of violence but a system of war (for this new concept s.
M. Mies ). War is the typical "order" of patriarchy, even in times of so called peace. Before Islam, seclusion was already in effect, but escalated in the centuries following Mohammed’s life. The veil, previously used to signify the chastity or class of a woman and identify prostitutes, came to have a slightly altered meaning.
Since patriarchy is perpetuated through a process of institutionalisation of the social, cultural and religious practices in society, as well as legitimised through the political, legal and economic systems of society, it leads women to internalise, as well as further perpetuate patriarchal ways of thinking, both in values and behaviour.
NOTES GENDER, COMPETITIVENESS, AND SOCIALIZATION AT A YOUNG AGE: EVIDENCE FROM A MATRILINEAL AND A PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY Steffen Andersen, Seda Ertac, Uri Gneezy, John A.
List, and Sandra Maximiano*. Apart from it, woman plays a key role in the socio-economic development of the society. ADVERTISEMENTS: Modern education and modern economic life use to compel woman more and more to leave the narrow sphere of the family circle and work side by side for the enrichment of society.
Analyzes the social causes of gender inequality. Explores origins, economics, politics, power, sexuality, violence, ideology, and other potential causes. Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society." and "How is the correspondence between media portrayals and real-life gender inequality sustained over time as gender inequality.